High productivity and effeciency have always been the goal of an organization. In order to achieve the goals, having highly satisfied employees is must. The purpose of this study to examine the relation between role conflict and job satisfaction. This study investigate the joint effect of both role conflict and role ambiguity on job satisfaction and three dimension of attitudes towards organizational change, namely affective, cognitive, and behavioral tendency in multicultural work setting. In this studied we try to looking for whether role conflict affect job satisfaction or not. If role conflict affect on job satisfaction what kind of impact that shown. Based on the former research about Role conflict and job satisfaction relation.
Keyword: Role Conflict, Job SatisfactionIntroduction
The aim of the present study is to find the impact of role conflict on job satisfaction. The investigation of the relation between role conflict and the dimensions of job satisfaction is being attempted and being analyzed. A worker role conflict towards work is directly linked to the job satisfaction, a worker who is satisfied with his job performs better and excels at what he does. It is therefore imperative for a company to understand the conflict of its workers and measure the job satisfaction of its employees, as job satisfaction is essential for productivity. Personal conflict plays an enormous role in determining the attitudes of employees and their job satisfaction. When an employee is happy, it is usually because they are satisfied with their work. This also improves the quality of their work. Job satisfaction is an individual‟s contentment with their work. Its effect on productivity is either positive or negative.
The relationship between job satisfaction and job productivity is however not consistent. An individual may still obtain high job productivity without having the satisfaction in the work. Job satisfaction has an effect on an individual‟s satisfaction with life. If an employee does not get satisfaction in their work, they may seek for satisfaction in other work unrelated areas. This provides fulfillment and balance in their life. He or she may also be content with work as it relates with those work unrelated areas. Job dissatisfaction may also cause an employee to quit (Robbins, 2004). An employee‟s role conflict may causes a problem and dissatisfaction in work. A Role Conflict in work will cause clashes in the work place because the conflict decrease your consentration and your mind. Psychology is another reason that affects an individual‟s dissatisfaction. Role conflict will disturb your psychology. This problem affects job productivity in a negative way. If the workers has so many distraction specially in the psycologycal thing is a negative one so is their ability to produce positive results.
Role conflict occurs when there are incompatible demands placed upon a person such that compliance with both would be difficult. We experience role conflict when we find ourselves pulled in various directions as we try to respond to the many statuses we hold (Macionis and John, 2010).
This paper adopts several of Ahmad and Taylor (2009) of underlying assumptions that “when behaviors expected of an individual are incompatible he or she will experience stress, depress, become dissatisfied, and perform less effectively than if the expectation imposed do not conflict, Thus, it can be seen that role conflict can negatively affect an individual‟s state of mind”. Another way to explain it, the individual commitment may be decreased due to role conflict. They also suggested that an environment of the organization affects the expectation of the role of employees. The expectations are pressures and norms to act as they have directed. But the roles may not be in the range of his or her duties.
Moreover, According to Montgomery (2011) situations that create role conflict occur when an executive: (i) perceives that his/her performance will be evaluated in a different way between one or more competing role designators; (ii) understands that his/her performance evaluation will be influenced by the view of the role designator, with respect to his/her ability to work with new technologies; (iii) considers that his/her performance evaluation will be influenced by how much the requirements placed by more than one hierarchical superior to whom he/she reports are fulfilled. For the author, these situations are the result of ineffective interdependencies that end up affecting an executive’s performance.
In this paper, role conflict is understood in the ideas of Ahmad and Taylor (2009), Macionis and John (2010), and Montgomery (2011).
The concept of job satisfaction has been defined in many different ways, the most popular definition was provided by Thompson (2012), where job satisfaction is simply how content an individual is with his or her job, in other words, whether or not they like the job or individual aspects of facets of jobs, such as nature of work or supervision. He has also noted that job satisfaction measures vary in the extent to which they measure feelings about the job (affective job satisfaction) or cognitions about the job (cognitive job satisfaction).
In the field of higher education, increased job satisfaction and better retention of faculty educes the need for costly faculty selection and hiring. Additionally, higher retention adds financial stability in the institution (Froesche and Sinkford, 2009). Faculty job satisfaction and its relationship to retention in higher education are business related issues, as a 5% increase in retention can lead to a 10% reduction in costs (Wong and Heng, 2009).
Terranova and Henning (2011) studied the job satisfaction of intercollegiate athletic trainers and found that athletic trainers who reported less job satisfaction also reported greater intention to leave their jobs.
Link between Role Conflict and Job Satisfaction
Several studies have tried to examine the relationship between role conflict and job satisfaction. Waheed and Malik (2010) supported that job satisfaction and affective commitment among bank employees is directly and negatively influenced by role overload and role conflict. Interestingly, it was also found that job satisfaction partially mediated the effects of role overload and role conflict on affective commitment. Among others, the authors suggest that granting bank managers some degree of autonomy in deciding what procedures to follow to accomplish a task is likely to reduce their perception of role conflict and role stress, so that they become more effective and productive and experience higher levels of job satisfaction.
Other studies also found that the role conflict experienced by employees could lead to job dissatisfaction. Khattak, Ul-Ain and Iqbal (2013) showed that role conflict has a negative relation with job satisfaction among bank employees, and job stress is likely to play a mediating role. The authors suggest that, in order to increase job satisfaction, the role stressors should be controlled. Ling, Bahron and Boroh (2014) studied the aspects of role stress (role conflict and role ambiguity) in relation with job satisfaction, that when a bank employee faces role stress, they are likely to produce unfavorable behavior, like low performance and resignation to an organization, and most likely they will become prone to job dissatisfaction
Based on the above evidences, it could be concluded that role conflict is shown to be negatively associated with job satisfaction. Therefore, the Hypothesis is formulated as follow: Hypothesis: There is a negative relationship between role conflict and job satisfaction. 2. 2 Data The data used in this study is obtained from a research that have been done by Ang Wei Ling, Dr. Arsiah Baron, and Rostika Petrus Boroh in 2014, with title „A Study on Role Stress and Job Satisfaction Among Bank Employees in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah‟. The research was conducted among 14 commercial banks located in Kinabalu City with 383 total population. The main target was on bank employees under the senior management, which are the Regional manager and Area Sales Manager (Marketing Officer, Customer Services Officer, Operation Officer, Bank Teller, Clerk, Branch Manager and Head of Services).
In order to collect the sample, purposive sampling was used in distributing 210 questionnaires to the choosen bank employees. Puposive sampling is used because in this case it is necessary to obtain information from specific target groups, by using this sampling design specific types of people would be able to provide the desired information (Sekaran and Bougie, 2010). it is assessed that the specimen measure For 383 total population of bank employees in Kinabalu City, at a 95% level of confidence, it is estimated that the sample size should be at roughly 205 numbers to be ideally representative, therefore a total of 210 questionnaires distributed, however only 163 questionnaires returned back, which represented 80% yielding in response rate. The quantity of the sample surpassed the minimum sample of 30 participants as required to allow for the data to be analysed using inferential statistics (Sekaran, 2000). The data were gathered using surveys via questionnaires development.
The data which gathered by the questionnaire were processed and analysed utilizing the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software. The use of Factor Analysis is to reduce a large number of variables into a smaller set of underlying factors that compress the basic information in the variables. Nonetheless, reliability test was also used to decide wherher the test is consistent and stable in measuring what it is intended to measure, the average correlation or covariance of the items were determined based on the Cronbach‟s Alpha coefficients. To test the direct effect of independent and dependent variable, Multiple Regression is used.