In facts, according to the statistics provided by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) of US that 28% of all crashes occur in inconvenient weather conditions and the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that one person dies every 25 seconds because of road injuries. Furthermore, during perturbed atmospheric conditions, the estimated average of total annual accidents is around 31385, over 511 road fatalities, and each year almost 12,000 injuries due to accidents in low-visible climate. In addition, zero-visibility can trigger ample airport delays and cancellations. This not only brings enormous losses for airports and airlines but also affects the public travels. Concurrently, flight safety and low-visibility are closely relative, since low-cloud or low-visibility is a common cause of flight accidents. Similar to the aviation industry, low-visibility weather condition damages water transportation systems too.On the other hand, the degradation of visibility strongly decreases the image quality of a captured outdoor scene. Since visibility is much better in a clear weather condition than air polluted with an extensive amounts water droplets or dust particles in the atmosphere. The key reason for the degradation of outdoor image quality in foggy or misty conditions is large amounts of suspended fog or mist particles in the air, which lead to the diffusion of most part the light prior to reaching the camera or another optical device.
As a repercussion, blurring happens in the whole image. These kinds of degraded and poor visible image scene considerably influence typically computer vision applications and embedded systems. Say, navigation, tracking applications, and monitoring systems; outdoor recognition, detection, and segmentation; intelligent transportation systems; optical and camera-based applications which are used in the military and security agencies etc. Hereby, at present, numerous safety and traffic monitoring cameras deployed throughout the country, and various vision-based applications widely in use. Most of these cameras videos and images are available on the internet and can be almost used real-time access.
In details, US acquires approximately 30 million surveillance cameras and 4 billion hours of footage per week. Moreover, in UK and South Korea, the estimated total number of installed closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras is 5 million and 1 million, accordingly. Deployments of cameras still broaden in both the amount and complexness of camera imagery demand that automated algorithms be developed to be simply used operationally by users. Thanks to congeries digital images from ubiquitous surveillance cameras, image processing, and machine learning techniques, image-based atmospheric visibility estimation methods might have many superiorities.